~DOWNLOAD ♭ The Teleological Grammar of the Moral Act ☾ PDF or E-pub free

~DOWNLOAD ☩ The Teleological Grammar of the Moral Act ♍ Cutting Through Contemporary Confusions With His Characteristic Rigor And Aplomb, Steven A Long Offers The Most Penetrating Study Available Of St Thomas Aquinas S Doctrine Of The Intention, Choice, Object, End, And Species Of The Moral Act Many Studies Of Human Action And Morality After Descartes And Kant Have Suffered From A Tendency To Split Body And Soul, So That The Intention Of The Human Spirit Comes To Justify Whatever The Body Is Made To Do The Portrait Of Human Action And Morality That Arises From Such Accounts Is One Of The Soul As The Pilot And The Body As Raw Material In Need Of Humanization In This Masterful Study, Steven Long Reconnects The Teleology Of The Soul With The Teleology Of The Body, So That Human Goal Oriented Action Rediscovers Its Lost Moral Unity, Given It By The Creator Who Has Created The Human Person As A Body Soul Unity Already, having read this has been absolutely invaluable to sorting out difficult moral issues As our mad mad modern world advances, our medical capabilities continue to present challenges to Catholic Christian ethics Dr Long rightly understands that our procedures for sorting through each difficult case and every one presents its own unique set of considerations requires a unified approach tied down to the Thomistic principles of intention and choice, ends and means A difficult read, on a difficult subject, but well worth the effort Read it. A number of things about this book are very good First, Long s argument that the end to which the object is per se directed provides the most formal specification of the action is brilliant both philosophically and as an interpretation of Aquinas Similarly, his interpretation of the principle of double effect greatly clarifies the key issues This turns on his view that intention should be understood narrowly not broadly, as referring to an act of the will directed toward an end rather than as referring broadly to intentional as an adjective to describe actions generally This avoids some of the ridiculous applications of double effect whereby intentionally shooting someone at close range could be described as repelling an attacker but not as killing someone On Long s reading, we can recognize that in some cases of self defense it may be lawful to choose to kill someone if this is proportionate but this act of killing must be directed toward the end that is intended of self defense.Some things about this book are not so good For instance, Long s repeated insistence that the object of the act contains the integral act itself is absurd if interpreted literally It would mean that we do intentionally all of the effects of our actions Barring this absurd interpretation, Long s claim is unnecessary All that we need to avoid a form of intentionalism that is unmoored from the reality of the act is an appeal to the doctrine that the circumstances may specify the object Two other problematic assumptions concern Long s view that the definition of an action and the closeness of the effects of the action distinguish the object of an action from effects that are merely circumstances Why should we prioritize an abstract description over a concrete description of an action For example, Long discusses the case of a submarine that goes underwater to avoid an ariel attack, and in so doing, killing a crew member who was on the deck Why say this is avoiding an attack rather than killing crew member not because of the definition Long appeals to the definition of this action where this sort of definition is found is unclear to me to say that the crew member s death was not part of the object but merely an unintended consequence But this is misguided the object is determined by the relationship of the circumstances to reason, and ultimately to the end since this is a matter of practical reason Because of this, we cannot appeal to any sort of definition to determine the object of the action but instead must base the assessment on the relevance of the circumstantial factors to the end of practical reason, the good Aside from this, Long s arguments against the use of condoms by couples to prevent HIV transmission is implausible as is his ridiculous argument that the use of condom by a couple to prevent HIV when one partner is sterile is still contraceptive Overall, the book is well worth reading.